Summary of a good man is hard to find sparknotes
SparkNotes is here for you with everything you need to ace or teach! Find out more. With his violent, wanton killing, the Misfit seems an unlikely source to look to for spiritual or moral guidance, but he demonstrates a deep conviction that the other characters lack. Unlike the grandmother, who simply assumes that she is morally superior to everyone else, the Misfit seriously questions the meaning of life and his role in it. He has carefully considered his actions in life and examined his experiences to find lessons within them.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Young Goodman Brown - Summary Sketch
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Baruch or, in Latin, Benedict de Spinoza was one of the most important rationalist philosophers in the early modern period, along with Descartes , Leibniz , and Malebranche. In his most important book, titled Ethics Demonstrated in a Geometrical Manner , Spinoza argues for a radically new picture of the universe to rival the traditional Judeo-Christian one. First, many of them found his arguments clear and compelling. Spinoza begins Ethics by defining key terms and identifying his assumptions.
Second, by all accounts Spinoza was an especially good man who lived a modest and virtuous life. Part I concerns issues in general metaphysics the existence of God, free will, the nature of bodies and minds, etc. Part II concerns two issues related to the mind: i what the mind is and how it relates to the body, and ii a general theory of knowledge.
Each part of the Ethics is broken into definitions of key terms, axioms assumptions , propositions theorems proven on the basis of the definitions, axioms, and the previous propositions , demonstrations proofs , corollaries where Spinoza often draws attention to other claims which can be proven on the basis of his propositions, but which are not part of his main argument , and scholia where Spinoza breaks out of his rigorous structure to comment, argue, or restate the demonstrated material in a more easily accessible way.
To this classic geometrical structure, Spinoza adds three additions to the Ethics. In these appendices he comments on the previous part, clarifies his position, and adds new arguments. When citing the Ethics begin with the Part number, then use the following shorthand:. So why does Spinoza utilize this cumbersome method of proof in the Ethics?
Scholars have given a number of different answers to this question. One common explanation concerns how people thought about science in this period.
In the 17th century, mathematics was the paradigmatic science. It was widely admired for offering conclusive and incontrovertible proofs which no rational person who understood them could reject. Descartes also considered the possibility of organizing his entire philosophy geometrically in the Second Replies, though he never made a serious attempt to do so.
Ethics is supposed to be a philosophical therapy which helps its readers to overcome their passions and superstitions and become more rational. Working through the proofs, Spinoza promotes these goals by forcing us to think carefully, and so promotes the therapeutic aim of his book. For more on the purpose of the geometrical method see Wolfson , I ; Bennett , ; Garrett ; Nadler , According to Spinoza, everything that exists is either a substance or a mode E1a1.
A substance is something that needs nothing else in order to exist or be conceived. Substances are independent entities both conceptually and ontologically E1d3. A mode or property is something that needs a substance in order to exist, and cannot exist without a substance E1d5. For example, being furry, orange, hungry, angry, etc. Hunger and patches of orange color cannot exist floating around on their own, but rather, hunger and patches of orange color need something namely, a substance to be hungry and have the orange color.
Hunger and colors are, therefore, dependent entities or modes. For example, according to Descartes a cat is a substance which has the modes or properties of being furry, orange, soft, etc. Though some have argued that Descartes cannot actually individuate multiple extended substances. See Curley , ; n. This one substance is simply people-like in places, rock-like in other places, chair-like in still other places, etc. One can think of substance as an infinite space.
Some regions of this one space are hard and brown rocks , other regions of space are green, juicy, and soft plants , while still other regions are furry, orange, and soft cats , etc.
This one substance has an infinite number of attributes. According to Descartes, every substance has only one attribute: bodies have only the attribute of extension, and minds have only the attribute of thought. Spinoza, however, argues against this claim that the one substance is absolutely infinite and so it must exist in every way that something can exist. Thus, he infers that the one substance must have an infinite number of attributes E1p9.
An attribute, according to Spinoza, is just the essence of substance under some way of conceiving or describing the substance E1d4. When we consider substance one way, then we conceive of its essence as extension. When we consider substance another way, then we conceive of its essence as thought. See Della Rocca a: While substance has an infinite number of different attributes, Spinoza argues that human beings only know about two of them: extension and thought.
His argument for this monism is his first argument in Part I of the Ethics. The basic structure of the argument is as follows:. No other substance can exist because if it existed it would have to share an attribute with God, but it is impossible for two different substances to both have the same attribute. Spinoza defends each of his four assumptions as follows:. However, according to Spinoza, it makes no sense to claim that something exists which does not have an essence.
Thus, every substance has at least one attribute. This premise is not particularly controversial. Here Spinoza argues that if two substances share one and the same attribute, then there is no way to tell the two substances apart. If substance A and substance B both have attribute 1 as their nature, then in virtue of what are there two different substances here? Since no cause can be given to explain their distinctness, Spinoza infers that they must actually be the same.
Formally, the argument is as follows:. In the demonstration of E1p11, Spinoza explicitly provides a number of different proofs for the existence of a substance with infinite attributes namely, God. One proof is a version of the Ontological Argument also used by Anselm and Descartes. This argument differs from the Ontological Arguments offered by Anselm and Descartes in that i Spinoza does not infer the existence of God from the claim that our idea of God involves existence and ii Spinoza does not assume that existence is a perfection and so a property.
There are a number of ways to attack the argument. Leibniz argued that whereby it might be impossible for two substances to have all of their attributes in common because then they would be indistinguishable , it may be possible for two substances to share an attribute and yet differ by each having another attribute that is not shared.
For example, one substance may have attributes A and B and another substance has attributes A and C. The two substances would be distinguishable because each has an attribute the other lacks, but both substances would nevertheless share an attribute. This objection was first presented by Leibniz to Spinoza himself.
Though Spinoza did not find the objection persuasive, he never offered an explicit reply. But why does this one substance have any finite modes properties? Spinoza provides an answer at E1p Spinoza argues that the greater something is, the greater the number of properties which follow from its nature or essence. For example, it follows from the nature of a triangle that it has three sides. Why do triangles have interior angles of degrees?
Because of the kind of things that they are that is, because of their essence. The greater the essence of the thing, the more properties that follow from it. Thus, an infinite number of finite modes must follow from the essence of God in just the way that certain properties of triangles having interior angles of degrees, for example follow from the essence of a triangle.
Human beings, chairs, tables, cats, dogs, trees, etc. Spinoza claims that one important consequence of this proof is that modes are properties of substance. The view that modes are properties of substance has been denied by at least one prominent interpreter of Spinoza Curley The dominant interpretation today is that modes are properties of the one substance.
Given this definition, Descartes infers that each substance has only one attribute. The problem is then to explain how we can have one substance with more than one essence. The problem is then to explain how one substance can have multiple essences and still remain one substance. If each attribute really is the essence of the one substance, then how do they relate to each other?
Are they identical? Or is each attribute really different from every other attribute? If they are identical, then why does the intellect distinguish them?
If they are different, then how can one substance have more than one essence? Some subjectivists such as Wolfson ff. Objectivists, on the other hand, argue that there is more than one attribute and that they are really distinct from each other. Wolfson argues that. In reality, however, they are one. The two attributes must therefore be one and identical with substance.
Furthermore, the two attributes have not been acquired by substance after it had been without them, nor are they conceived by the mind one after the other or deduced one from the other. They have always been in substance together, and are conceived by our mind simultaneously. Hence, the attributes are only different words expressing the same reality and being of substance Wolfson Vol.
That is, substance has only one essence and that essence is the sum total of all of its attributes. The attributes are all identical and also identical with the substance itself. The essence of substance is therefore the one attribute extension-thought-etc.
This one attribute cannot be thought as it is, but is instead mentally broken into pieces and considered only partially. Wolfson thus explicitly provides answers to both the Attribute-Essence Problem and to the Attribute-Attribute Problem.
In both cases Wolfson claims that the relation is identity. Bennett argues that the attributes do not constitute the essence of substance at all. Instead the essence of substance is really the infinite series of finite modes. The attributes merely appear to constitute the essence of substance.
A Good Man Is Hard to Find Summary
SparkNotes is here for you with everything you need to ace or teach! Find out more. The grandmother tries to convince her son, Bailey, and his wife to take the family to east Tennessee for vacation instead of Florida. She points out an article about the Misfit, an escaped convict heading toward Florida, and adds that the children have already been there. John Wesley, eight years old, suggests that the grandmother stay home, and his sister, June Star, says nastily that his grandmother would never do that.
Each No Fear guide contains :. By Khw on Dec 05, Shylock is the only sympathetic character in the play. Any sense of comedy in the play died for those with a sense of religious tolerance, and Shylock comes off as merely oppressed.
Benedict de Spinoza: Metaphysics
Baruch or, in Latin, Benedict de Spinoza was one of the most important rationalist philosophers in the early modern period, along with Descartes , Leibniz , and Malebranche. In his most important book, titled Ethics Demonstrated in a Geometrical Manner , Spinoza argues for a radically new picture of the universe to rival the traditional Judeo-Christian one. First, many of them found his arguments clear and compelling. Spinoza begins Ethics by defining key terms and identifying his assumptions. Second, by all accounts Spinoza was an especially good man who lived a modest and virtuous life. Part I concerns issues in general metaphysics the existence of God, free will, the nature of bodies and minds, etc. Part II concerns two issues related to the mind: i what the mind is and how it relates to the body, and ii a general theory of knowledge.
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Find out more. She first applies it to Red Sammy after he angrily complains of the general untrustworthiness of people. Her assumption, of course, proves to be false. In other words, God has the power to allow even bad people to go to heaven, which he does by granting them grace.
The novel tells the story of the French Doctor Manette, his year-long imprisonment in the Bastille in Paris and his release to live in London with his daughter Lucie, whom he had never met. The story is set against the conditions that led up to the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. Dickens' best-known work of historical fiction, A Tale of Two Cities is regularly cited as the best-selling novel of all time.
A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Find out more. An irksome woman who lives with Bailey and his family. Before she is killed, the grandmother remembers that the house is actually in Tennessee, nowhere near where she said it was.
Find out more. She moved to Atlanta with her family as a teenager but moved to Milledgeville, Georgia, when her father was diagnosed with lupus. He died three years later when she was just fifteen. An avid writer since childhood, she worked for the student newspaper and literary magazine and also wrote stories. Fearing that she would live only three more years as her father had, she left New York and moved in with her mother on their Georgian dairy farm, Andalusia.
The Merchant of Venice (SparkNotes No Fear Shakespeare)
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SparkNotes is here for you with everything you need to ace or teach! Find out more. She chastises John Wesley for not having more respect for Georgia, his home state. She also takes any opportunity to judge the lack of goodness in people in the world today. During all this, she proudly wears her carefully selected dress and hat, certain that being a lady is the most important virtue of all, one that she alone harbors.
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